Acetyl-l-Carnitine: Benefits, Side-Effects, Dosage and Interactions

What is acetyl-l-carnitine? It is an amino acid (a building block for proteins) that is produced naturally in the body. It boosts energy levels in the body.

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Acetyl-l-Carnitine Overview

Acetyl-L-carnitine is an amino acid (a protein building block) that is naturally synthesized in the body. It increases the body’s energy levels. It is advantageous to men since it aids in the treatment of infertility, decreased testosterone levels related to aging, and peronei’s, a penis condition. It is also used to treat a variety of mental diseases, including age-related memory loss, Alzheimer’s disease, Lyme disease-related thinking issues, and late-life depression. L-carnitine can be converted to acetyl-L-carnitine and vice versa in our bodies. [1]

The Sources of Acetyl-l-carnitine

Acetyl-L-carnitine is an amino acid that can be found in all parts of the body. It’s produced in the liver and kidneys. It’s made in the body from the amino acids methionine and lysine, and it needs vitamin C to do so. It is mostly present in red meat, particularly beef and lamb, as well as dairy products.

L-carnitine is a nutritional supplement and vitamin. It transports fatty acids into the mitochondria of your cells, which is vital for energy production. [2] The mitochondria in your cells work as engines, burning fats to produce useful energy. [3] The amino acids lysine and methionine can be used to make L-carnitine in your body. You’ll also need a lot of vitamin C for your body to manufacture enough of it.

You can get tiny amounts of L-carnitine from consuming animal products like meat or fish in addition to the L-carnitine your body produces. [4]

Vegans and those with specific genetic conditions may not be able to make or obtain sufficient amounts. As a result, L-carnitine is considered a conditionally necessary vitamin. [5]

The Benefits of Acetyl L Carnitine

Acetyl-L-carnitine is required for brain and heart function, as well as muscular movement and other bodily functions. It is essential for brain circulation problems, Down syndrome, diabetic nerve discomfort, cataracts, and facial paralysis. [6]

It aids in the regulation of neurotransmitter levels, which are the chemical mediators of electrical transmissions in the brain. It’s also necessary for the generation of energy from fats, which helps the heart and brain work properly. [7]

Acetyl L-carnitine may be beneficial in the following ways:

Acetyl-l-Carnitine Side Effects

Acetyl-L-carnitine is probably unsafe for some individuals. It can produce nausea, stomach trouble, restlessness, and vomiting, among other things. It might make your breath and urine smell fishy.

Acetyl-L-carnitine can interact with thyroid hormone, thus if you have an underactive thyroid, you should avoid it.

For the most part, 2 grams or less per day is considered safe and free of significant adverse effects for most people.

Long-term use of carnitine dosages of roughly 2 grams per day appeared to be safe in one study investigating the safety of L-carnitine. However, there were a few minor side effects, such as nausea and stomach pain. [14]

Doses and Timing for Acetyl-l-carnitine

Acetyl-L-carnitine is the most effective form for maintaining brain health and function. The daily dose ranges from 600 to 2,500 mg depending on the problems

It is recommended that users should take 1500-2000 mg per day for age-related memory decline.

It is recommended that people with Alzheimer’s disease take 1500-4000 mg per day, divided into two or three doses during the day.
Adults suffering from depression are advised to take 1500-3000 mg each day in separate doses.

It is recommended that diabetic neuropathy patients take 1500 to 3000 mg per day in divided doses.

Propionic-L-carnitine is the greatest form for boosting blood flow in people who have high blood pressure or other health problems. The daily dose ranges from 400 to 1,000 mg. In the long run, 2,000 mg (2 grams) per day appears to be safe and effective.

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Acetyl L Carnitine FAQ’s

Q: What is acetyl-l-carnitine?

A: Acetyl-L-carnitine is a kind of L-carnitine, an amino acid found in almost all human cells. L-carnitine is essential for the conversion of long-chain fatty acids into energy. It also boosts the activity of particular nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.

Q: Does acetyl-l-carnitine burn fat?

A: A non-linear dose-response association was seen between l-carnitine supplementation and body weight reduction (P < 0.001) suggesting that ingestion of 2000 mg l-carnitine per day provides the maximum effect in adults. [15]

Q: How much acetyl-l-carnitine is too much?

A: At doses of roughly 3 g/day, carcinina supplements can produce nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and “unnoticed” body odor. Muscle weakness and seizures in persons with distressing seizures are both common side effects of uremia.

Q: What foods are high in acetyl-l-carnitine?

A: The finest sources are animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, and milk. The more the carnitine concentration of beef, the redder it is. Carnitine is mostly found in the whey part of dairy products. [16]

Q: How does acetyl-l-carnitine work?

A: Carnitine is an essential component of energy generation. It transfers long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria to be oxidized (“burned”) for energy production. It also transfers the hazardous substances produced by this cellular organelle so that they don’t build up. [17]

Q: What is the best form of acetyl-l-carnitine?

A: Acetyl-L-carnitine: This form is best for brain health and function. Doses vary from 600–2,500 mg per day. L-carnitine L-tartrate: This form is most effective for exercise performance. Doses vary from 1,000–4,000 mg per day [18]

Q: Can i take acetyl-l-carnitine while breastfeeding?

A: Supplementing with carnitine is recommended since carnitine deficiency can lead to significant consequences. According to plasma concentrations, this supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy.

Q: How to take acetyl-l-carnitine powder?

A: It is recommend that Acetyl L-Carnitine be used twice a day directly before meals for those looking to lose weight. A typical dose of Acetyl L-Carnitine is between 500mg and 2g per day. A flat standard teaspoon equals 3.4g of Acetyl L-Carnitine. [19]

Q: When to take acetyl-l-carnitine?

A: Acetyl-L-carnitine can be taken with or without food. After removing the blister container, acetyl-L-carnitine should be ingested as soon as possible. [20]

Q: Can acetyl-l-carnitine cause headaches?

A: Acetyl-L-carnitine is generally considered safe when taken by mouth. Stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, headache, and restlessness are some of the possible adverse effects.

Final Verdict

A number of studies have shown that L-carnitine is effective in raising heart output and enhancing heart function. It also helps to support cardiac performance by stimulating the heart’s energy supply.

Studies back up its usage for health, cognitive function, and illness prevention. This supplement may also help persons with reduced levels, such as the elderly, vegans, and vegetarians.

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Acetyl-l-Carnitine: Benefits, Side-Effects, Dosage and Interactions

20 Sources

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[1] Cavallini G, Caracciolo S, Vitali G, Modenini F, Biagiotti G. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology. 2004 Apr;63(4):641-6. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2003.11.009. PMID: 15072869.
[2] Flanagan JL, Simmons PA, Vehige J, Willcox MD, Garrett Q. Role of carnitine in disease. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010;7:30. Published 2010 Apr 16. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-30
[3] Inazu M, Matsumiya T. [Physiological functions of carnitine and carnitine transporters in the central nervous system]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2008 Jun;28(3):113-20. Japanese. PMID: 18646596.
[4] L-Carnitine:
[5] L-Carnitine:
[6] Ferreira GC, McKenna MC. L-Carnitine and Acetyl-L-carnitine Roles and Neuroprotection in Developing Brain. Neurochem Res. 2017;42(6):1661-1675. doi:10.1007/s11064-017-2288-7
[7] Bathina S, Das UN. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its clinical implications. Arch Med Sci. 2015;11(6):1164-1178. doi:10.5114/aoms.2015.56342
[8] Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, French DN, Rubin MR, Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, Ratamess NA, Newton RU, Jemiolo B, Craig BW, Häkkinen K. The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Aug;17(3):455-62. doi: 10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0455:teolls>;2. PMID: 12930169.
[9] Spiering BA, Kraemer WJ, Hatfield DL, Vingren JL, Fragala MS, Ho JY, Thomas GA, Häkkinen K, Volek JS. Effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on muscle oxygenation responses to resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Jul;22(4):1130-5. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31817d48d9. PMID: 18545197.
[10] Gonzalez AM, Townsend JR, Pinzone AG, Hoffman JR. Supplementation with Nitric Oxide Precursors for Strength Performance: A Review of the Current Literature. Nutrients. 2023;15(3):660. Published 2023 Jan 28. doi:10.3390/nu15030660
[11] Giamberardino MA, Dragani L, Valente R, Di Lisa F, Saggini R, Vecchiet L. Effects of prolonged L-carnitine administration on delayed muscle pain and CK release after eccentric effort. Int J Sports Med. 1996 Jul;17(5):320-4. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-972854. PMID: 8858401.
[12] Mairbäurl H. Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells. Front Physiol. 2013;4:332. Published 2013 Nov 12. doi:10.3389/fphys.2013.00332
[13] Rahbar AR, Shakerhosseini R, Saadat N, Taleban F, Pordal A, Gollestan B. Effect of L-carnitine on plasma glycemic and lipidemic profile in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;59(4):592-6. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602109. PMID: 15741989.
[14] Dietary Factors:
[15] Acetyl-L-carnitine: Can it relieve MS fatigue?:
[16] Carnitine:
[17] Cellular Organelle:
[18] Carnitine:,organelle%20to%20prevent%20their%20accumulation
[19] de Bruyn A, Jacquemyn Y, Kinget K, Eyskens F. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2015;2015:101468. doi:10.1155/2015/101468
[20] Carnitine (L-carnitine):

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